German Spring Offensive

Event date

21st March 1918 to 18th July 1918


Keywords for this event?

Source , 20th February 2014

Source Date

2014-02-20 00:00:00
Entity info.

The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914. The Germans had realised that their only remaining chance of victory was to defeat the Allies before the overwhelming human and matériel resources of the United States could be deployed. They also had the temporary advantage in numbers afforded by the nearly 50 divisions freed by the Russian surrender (the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).

Date 21 March – 18 July 1918
Location Northern France; West Flanders, Belgium
Result Tactical German success
Operational/Strategic German failure
 German Empire France France

United Kingdom British Empire

 United States
Italy Italy
Portugal Portugal

Commanders and leaders
German Empire Erich Ludendorff France Ferdinand Foch
United Kingdom Douglas Haig
France Philippe Pétain
United States John Pershing

Italy Alberico Albricci
Portugal Tamagnini de Abreu

Casualties and losses
688,341 418,374 British
433,000 French
5,000 Italians
7,000+ Portuguese

There were four German offensives codenamed, Michael, Georgette, Gneisenau and Blücher-Yorck. Michael was the main attack, which was intended to break through the Allied lines, outflank the British forces which held the front from the Somme River to the English Channel and defeat the British Army. Once this was achieved, it was hoped that the French would seek armistice terms. The other offensives were subsidiary to Michael and were designed to divert Allied forces from the main offensive on the Somme.

No clear objective was established before the start of the offensives and once the operations were underway, the targets of the attacks were constantly changed according to the battlefield (tactical) situation. The Allies concentrated their main forces in the essential areas (the approaches to the Channel Ports and the rail junction of Amiens), while leaving strategically worthless ground, devastated by years of combat, lightly defended.

The Germans were unable to move supplies and reinforcements fast enough to maintain their advance. The fast-moving stormtroopers leading the attack could not carry enough food and ammunition to sustain themselves for long and all the German offensives petered out, in part through lack of supplies.

By late April 1918, the danger of a German breakthrough had passed. The German Army had suffered heavy casualties and now occupied ground of dubious value which would prove impossible to hold with such depleted units. In August 1918, the Allies began a counter-offensive, using new artillery techniques and operational methods. The Hundred Days Offensive resulted in the Germans retreating or being driven from all of the ground taken in the Spring Offensive, the collapse of the Hindenburg line and the capitulation of the German Empire that November.

Event Place

Author: David

Add comment

Log in or register to post comments